The difference between the cost of sold items and the total net sales income.


The difference between the market value of collateral pledged to secure a loan and the face value of the loan itself.


The amount paid by the customer when he or she uses a broker credit to buy a security under Federal Reserve regulations, the initial margin required in past decades has ranged from 50 to 100 percent of the purchase price.

foreign exchange

The good faith deposit which the writer of an option or the buyer of a forward or futures contract has to put up to cover the risk of adverse price movements.

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