(economics) Any number of import quotas or other quantitative restrictions, non-automatic import licensing, customs surcharges or other fees and charges, customs procedures, export subsidies, unreasonable standards or standards-setting procedures, government procurement restrictions, inadequate intellectual property protection and investment restrictions which deny or make market access excessively difficult for goods or services of foreign origin.
(GATT) Participants in the Tokyo Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade attempted to address these barriers through the negotiations of a number of GATT codes, open for signature to all GATT members. Seven codes were negotiated during the Tokyo Round, covering customs valuations, import licensing, subsidies and countervailing duties, antidumping duties, standards, government procurement and trade in civil aircraft. Although the Tokyo Round codes had alleviated some of the problems caused by non-tariff measures, overall use of NTMs has increased since conclusion of the Tokyo Round. See import restrictions; non-tariff barriers; Tokyo Round; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, World Trade Organization.