A fully enclosed, insulated and refrigerated railroad boxcar designed to carry perishable freight at specific temperatures. Reefers can be cooled with ice, a mechanical refrigeration system, or carbon dioxide (as dry ice).
Some shipments of fruits and vegetables require only insulated and ventilated boxcars to remove the heat created in the ripening process. Meat reefers are equipped with specialized rails for beef and pork. Dairy and poultry products require specialized interior racks to ensure cooled air circulates.